Let’s Design a Green Blueprint for Green Tomorrow…

Let’s Design a Green Blueprint for Green Tomorrow…

green building design tools

With the advancement in technology and software, it is possible now to evaluate the energy performance of a building at early stage of building designing process. Let’s design a blueprint for green tomorrow green where we and our generation would inhale fresh air!

Energy efficiency is becoming a key factor. Of late, “Go Green” slogan has been organic part of the architecture industry. International outcry for a greener and safer earth, increasing environmental consciousness among people, greenhouse issues raised by the environmentalists across the globe are compelling the architecture firms, virtual building solutions firms and real-estate developers to develop energy efficient tools which can minimize the environmental impact and predict the amount of energy a building consumes over its life-span much before its construction. In response to the increasing demand, architect engineers and software experts develop various tools to be used in the early design phase, as 80% of the sustainable design decisions that affect a building’s energy performance are made by the architect designer at the early design phase, to increase the building performance. With the advancement in technology and software, it is possible now to evaluate the energy performance of a building at early stage of building designing process.

Impact of the Construction Industry

The construction industry has a profound impact on our daily lives: the buildings we live and work in, the roads and bridges we drive on, the railways, airports and harbors we travel and trade from are the greatest contributions of this industry. According to a report published by Pricewaterhouse Coopers, “The construction industry accounts for around one-tenth of the world’s gross domestic product, seven percent of employment, half of all resource usage and up to 40 percent of energy consumption.” It indicates large amount of land use, energy and water consumption, and air and atmosphere alteration. To mention, in the US alone, more than 2,000,000 acres (8,100 km2) of open space, wildlife SUPS habitat, and wetlands are developed each year. More commercial and residential building will be developed in the coming years. Increasing energy and water consumption will alternate the ecological balance and healthy atmosphere. The demand for advanced energy efficient tools is increasingly sweeping the architectural design industry.

Global Scenario and Today’s Need of the Hour

In the last century constant movements led by environmentalists, scientists and NGOs forced developed and developing countries both to set some standards and benchmarks to be followed by architecture design firms, real estate developers, architects and engineers to reduce green house effect. With the passing of time, architecture firms around the world have developed advanced tools to help architecture designers and building developers meet the standards set by various Councils and energy bureaus. There are hundreds of energy rating tools available in the market. These tools are being considered need of the hour. Autodesk® has developed an energy rating tools called Ecotect® help architects and designers evaluate multiple design alternatives at early stages of the design process. In conjunction with 3D, these tools enables architect designers to assess and control solar access, natural and artificial lighting levels, overshadowing, wind exposure, thermal performance, etc. Reference Architectural Evangelist.

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Revit 2016 Render Engine Comparison

Revit 2016 Render Engine Comparison

NVIDIA Mental Ray or Autodesk Raytracer? That is the question. I believe that both render engines have their advantages and disadvantages.

The first render engine comparison is of an exterior day render. The NVIDIA Mental Ray image is on the left, while the Autodesk Raytracer image is on the right. Even though these two renders were created using the same quality settings, sun settings etc., one can clearly see that the Autodesk Raytracer engine saturates colours far more than the NVIDIA Mental Ray engine.

Autodesk Raytracer image

When comparing an internal night render, one can see that the NVIDIA Mental Ray engine is far more “realistic” than the Autodesk Raytracer engine. Pay attention to the floor lamp on the left. No electrical, nor photometric properties were changed between the two renders, yet something is “off” about the lamp lighting. (It might have been a mistake on my side)

Autodesk Raytracer engine

If you do not have access to a dedicated rendering/visualization program and you can only render from within Revit, if your renders do not look “perfect”, there is no need to start moaning about the “limitations” of the program. You have 5 main options to choose from:

1. Choose which render engine will give you the best result: NVIDIA Mental Ray, or Autodesk Raytracer.

2. If one of the above options do not give you the results you want, how about rendering through the Cloud?

3. If neither one of the above options work for you, start post processing the image inside of Revit. Change the Highlights, Saturation, Mid Tones, etc. to make your image as close to perfect as can be.

4. You always have the option to export your Revit model to an external software program, such as Autodesk 3ds Max, Autodesk Showcase, Autodesk Navis works, even Autodesk AutoCAD. From within these programs, you will be able to tweak your renders even further

5. Use post-processing software such as Adobe Photoshop.

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Vernacular Architecture

Vernacular Architecture


Vernacular architecture stems from the belief that architecture is a balanced combination of logical knowledge, divine inspiration and common sense. “Vernacular architecture is the architecture of the people, and by the people, but not for the people.”

“Vernacular architecture,” Paul Oliver defines in his book ‘Dwellings,’ “is the architecture of the people, and by the people, but not for the people.” Vernacular architecture, as the term, refers to the construction methodology that natives employ to build shelters using locally prevalent resources and conditions.

The building knowledge is developed by trial and error and handed down the generations through local traditions. Therefore, it has been contemptuously dismissed as being crude and coarse. But, a new school of architects have developed on it in the last few decades to come up with fascinating, and sometimes awe-evoking, alternate dwellings that are in harmony with the natural landscape and the human spirit.

Estimates suggest that at least 90 per cent of buildings are designed with no help of any professional architects and designers. Local designs evolve in compliance with the economic feasibility, topography and climate. Indigenous materials are employed to create distinctive residences that merge with the surrounding landscape. Even the interior spaces are decorated in a fashion that evokes Nature. With swelling populations, unstable ecology and economic worries hitting hard, numerous architects around the world are increasingly looking towards sustainable solutions. They attempt to blend modern architectural theories to vernacular building cultures and often come up with strikingly surprising innovations. The resultant is humane and ecologically sound buildings.

With growing interest in earth-friendly building construction techniques, architects are relearning various practical aspects of infusing modern technologies with bygone traditions and cultures. They are actively building upon the knowledge of our grandparents to build homes that would secure our children’s futures. The vernacular is the source of many interesting innovations in building. From mud huts to European styled colonial mansions, from bamboo sheds to massive high-rises, modern architects are constructing shelters, where indoor and outdoor living seamlessly combines to awaken the senses and bring the dwellers closer to their natural world.

Vernacular architecture widely varies from the spectacular Mayan Tikal and Machu Picchu temples to humble dwellings like the African tree-houses and the Native American log cabin. The igloos of the Inuit (Greenland), rondavels of South Africa, tin-and-thatch houses of Togo, yurts of Mongolia, and the Bedouin tents are other classic examples of vernacular dwellings. Interestingly, public utility buildings like granaries, fortifications and religious institutions are more frequent vernacular structures than residential homes.

Folk buildings are built according to the local demand-supply forces. If they are nomadic settlements, light-weight building materials like bamboo, palm fronds and leaves are used for easy relocation. More permanent dwellings would be made up of clay, thatch and cow dung, which are relatively sturdy and durable. Sometimes, climate could be the design factor. Houses in river basins, like the Amazon basin in South America or the rainforests in Africa, are built upon tree-tops or on raised platforms supported by bamboo beneath. In windy regions, the roofs are sloped in the ideal direction. Rainy areas have conical or sloping roofs while dry areas have perforations in their walls. Similarly, cold regions have less or no windows; while warm territories would have houses that are relatively open that facilitates ventilation. The ‘scoops’ atop houses in Pakistan’s Sind district are innovatively placed to channel wind from the roof into each building, thereby keeping summer temperatures to tolerable limits.

Vernacular architecture taps the design capacity of ordinary people to build buildings that are not only low-cost but also familiar to the native inhabitants. This is especially important in the Third World where people lack capital. Thus, their housing crisis could be resolved through their participation in the designing of their own community. Additionally, vernacular architecture proves immensely helpful at times of disaster. When the displaced people are given back homes akin to their vernacular traditions, they recover better from the traumatic experiences.

Numerous modern architects have intensively studied vernacular architecture and claim to have drawn a good deal of inspiration from it. They have found innovative ways of incorporating them into human dwellings that are “environmentally clean” and “spiritually healthy.” The New Gourna township near Luxor, designed by Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy in 1946, is the first recorded attempt are planning an entire town for the natives, in accordance with their local vernacular style. Today, there’s a renewed response to information and ecology. Architects are seeking new equations between buildings and the natural habitat.

Renowned architect, Eugene Tsui looks up to Nature as the basis of his designs. He has a compelling conviction that the strongest and most efficient structural forms known to mankind lie in Nature’s plan. He offers astonishingly original alternatives to the regular industrial (steel and concrete) construction that dominate today’s architectural landscape. He examines nature’s forms, structures and, materials in the scientific and architectural light, and presents an exciting glimpse of the world through his eyes. He brings alive the fascinating world of bird’s nests, termite towers, fish bubble homes, and snail shells which offer a hidden world of endless design possibilities and problem-solving ideas for our buildings. Tsui’s evolutionary architecture is vividly manifested in his architectural projects that may range from a residential remodel that features a dragonfly wings’ roof ventilation to a three-kilometer long city resembling a termite’s nest with crisscrossing steel cables that look like a spider web.

Vernacular architecture stems from the belief that architecture is a balanced combination of logical knowledge, divine inspiration and common sense. It should also be kept in mind that vernacular architecture can be overtly romanticized with a tendency to ignore the multiple inconveniences and discomforts. But, the challenge lies in finding befitting architectural solutions that advantageously blend empirical science with native traditions, in order to come up with an impeccable masterpiece. Modern architects have been successful, time and again, in building exquisite organic architectural designs that are inspired from the earthy vernacular traditions in architecture. Reference architectural evangelist.

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Marry Christmas to all Reviters

Marry Christmas to all Reviters

Marry Christmas

This has been an interesting year.
Working with PhoenixEOS and teaching at the Revit Technology Conference was an exciting adventure. Traveling to Vancouver was awesome time. I got to meet some people I’d only communicated with through emails or online, Philip Miller of Kiwi Codes was one of them.

Going to Autodesk University(AU) was definitely different this year. How I got to AU was interesting and sitting and doing filming the video’s was an experience. I learned some things at Autodesk is doing, that is both exciting and frustrating. Not real pleased with the new AU website after AU, but we will see how continuing learning from AU will go through 2014 using the cumbersome website goes.

For now it’s off to a Disney cruse with the kido’s.  I hope every one has a safe and wonderful Christmas and New Year.

Disney cruse

PhoenixEOS (Phoenix Engineering Outsourcing Services)

Mission:To offer the best integration of Architecture and Engineering solutions thereby consistently being in focus of what the clients need. Our zeal to excel in the technology inputs and providing consistently credible output shall be the strong points of our services at all times.

Vision:To be a forerunner in our field with the drive to provide valuable services to the clients. To be part of the solutions through sustainable engineering and architectural designs that keep in mind the future. To be quality driven in our approach to cater to our clients with emphasis on balancing their needs and the environment.

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Architecture Industry: A Hidden Culprit to Global Warming

Architecture Industry: A Hidden Culprit to Global Warming

green architecture
Contrary to this belief that transportation industry is largely responsible for climate change and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, buildings are the single largest contributors to global warming.

“If we buy the wrong TV we’re saddled with it for a few years. If we buy the wrong sandwich we’re only saddled with it for the afternoon. But if we buy the wrong building, we’re saddled with it for far longer,” answered Peter Morris principal of the construction consultancy Davis Langdon, in response to a question by a leading Indian magazine, Business Week. Build green building and promote global environmental responsibility. Build green and save money. Increasing environmental consciousness among people, international outcry for a “cleaner, greener and safer Earth”, greenhouse issues raised by the environmentalists from the different corners of world are compelling architectural firms, real estate developers, home builders, virtual building solutions provider to focus on sustainable green building.

The architecture industry has a profound impact on our daily lives. Contrary to this belief that transportation industry is largely responsible for climate change and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, buildings are the single largest contributors to global warming. According to the US Energy Information Administration, buildings are responsible for almost half (48%) of all energy consumption and Green House Gas emissions annually. Globally the percentage is even greater. Architectural buildings including residential, commercial and industrial buildings consume 76% of total U.S. electricity generation.

The story does not end here. Building industry also generates tons of wastage materials which distort the soil structure and pollute environment largely. For example, the architecture industry in UK produces nearly 20 percent of all UK waste, equating to approximately 90 million tonnes sent to landfill every year. This figure is sufficient enough to prove the impact of architecture industry on ecological system. In the US alone, more than 2,000,000 acres (8,100 km2) of open space, wildlife SUPS habitat, and wetlands are developed each year. More commercial and residential building will be developed in the coming years. More energy and water consumption will alternate the ecological balance and healthy atmosphere. Immediate action in the building sector is required if we want to avoid the coming grave crisis. Architectural firms can gift us a green tomorrow as 80% of the sustainable design decisions that affect a building’s energy performance are made by architect at the design phase. With gradual advancement in technology and engineering, Architectural firm can evaluate the energy performance of a building at the early stage of designing building process. Copied from Architectural Evangelist.

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Project Shapeshifter to Revit Conceptual Design

Project Shapeshifter to Revit Conceptual Design

After playing around with Project Shapeshifter, He has to say I am quite impressed. extremely complex geometrical forms can be created, which would take a considerable amount of time to replicate in Revit’s massing environment, as well as through visual programming in Dynamo. He wondered how one could utilize these Project Shapeshifter forms in Revit and started defining a workflow.

The first images below will demonstrate the various forms one can create in Project Shapeshifter, based on the pre-existing templates.

The default Cube template will be active by default. There is a filmstrip of allowing you to choose from 38 patterns to the bottom of the web browser, to apply to the object.

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Below are the different patterns which can be applied, and their effects:

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The various forms one can choose from, takes place from the templates tab to the top of the web browser. There are 12 forms to choose from.

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A snake form was chosen. One can now start to modify basic settings applicable to this form, or even move to more advanced settings. One can even decide what the form geometry will look like: Based on a circle, half circle, triangle, etc.

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The best feature for me would be the Randomize function. You will get random forms with a random pattern and random template applied. This shapeshifter model can then be downloaded in either a *.obj file format, or *.stl file format. With a quick file format conversion in 3ds Max to ACIS Sat, the concept is useable in Revit.

Walls and Curtain Systems were applied to the form faces, to generate quite an interesting structure:

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Going Green – Green Architecture

Going Green – Green Architecture


Building and construction have a great effect on the environment. In the United States, buildings alone account for 40-49% energy consumption, 25% of water consumption, 70% of total energy consumption and 38% of total carbon dioxide emissions.

What is green building?

Also known as sustainable architecture it essentially means building and architecture that is considerate towards the environment. This consideration can range from, building home with special materials such as straw bale, using efficient products and recycled materials within your home, planning land use and monitoring and improving indoor air quality.

There are several ways, which are not considered experimental anymore, in which home owners and builders can create environmentally responsible buildings. Mainstream approaches include using eco friendly products wherever possible; harvesting rain water and using natural light harnessing solar energy. Using raw materials that are rapidly renewable such as cork, linoleum and bamboo or locally manufactured products to save on energy consumed during transportation are also options at an individual level.

Green Countries


The Green Building Council of Australia has outlined a green building standard known as the Green Star. The most recent recipient of the 6 Green Star award was The Australian Ethical Investment Ltd’s refurbished office space in Trevor Pearcey House, Canberra. The total cost of the renovation of this building was $1.7 million, and produced an estimated 75% reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, 75% reduction in water usage, and used over 80% recycled materials. The architects were Collard Clarke Jackson Canberra, architectural work done by Kevin Miller, interior design by Katy Mutton.

Australia also has a system to improve energy efficiency of residential buildings called First Rate. Environmental consciousness has rapidly grown in Melbourne, the government offers subsidies and rebates for water tanks, water efficient products (such as shower heads) and solar hot water systems. The city is home to many examples of green buildings and sustainable development such as the CERES Environmental Park. Another one is EcoLinc in Bacchus Marsh. Two of the most prominent examples of green commercial buildings in Australia are located in Melbourne — 60L and Council House 2 (also known as CH2).


For new buildings built after the year 2000, Canada has implemented “R-2000” in an effort to increase energy efficiency and promote sustainability. Incentives are offered to builders to meet this standard.

Examples of green buildings include Beamish-Munro Hall at Queen’s University built by sustainable construction methods such as high fly-ash concrete, triple-glazed windows, dimmable fluorescent lights and a grid-tied photovoltaic array. And the Gene H. Kruger Pavilion at Laval University which was built using largely non polluting, non toxic, recycled and renewable materials as well as advanced bioclimatic concepts that reduce energy consumption by 25% compared with a concrete building of the same dimensions. The structure of the building is made entirely out of wood products, thus further reducing the environmental impact of the building.


  1. Green buildings in Germany
  2. The Solarsiedlung (Solar Village) in Freiburg, Germany
  3. The Vauban development, also in Freiburg
  4. Houses designed by Baufritz
  5. The new Reichstag building in Berlin


The CII is the central pillar of the Indian Green Building Council or IGBC and plays a major role in the promotion of green building in the Indian construction sector. The IGBC has licensed the LEED Green Building Standard from the U.S. Green Building Council and currently is responsible for certifying LEED-New Construction and LEED-Core and Shell buildings in India. All other projects are certified through the U.S. Green Building Council. There are many energy efficient buildings in India, situated in a variety of climatic zones.


Israel has recently implemented a voluntary standard for “Buildings with Reduced Environmental Impact” 5281, based on a point rating system (55= certified 75=excellence) and is coupled with complementary standards 5282-1 5282-2 for energy analysis and 1738 for sustainable products provides a system for evaluating environmental sustainability of buildings. Recently at the Intel Development Center in Haifa the United States Green Building Council LEED rating system had been implemented. Many other buildings have successfully implemented this standard and an industry wide movement is in place to introduce an Israeli version of LEED in the very near future.


The Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) promotes green building techniques. Malaysian architect Ken Yeang is a prominent voice in the area of ecological design.

New Zealand

The New Zealand Green Building Council has been in formation since July 2005. After a few organizational changes and the appointment of Jane Henley as CEO a positive movement began. In July 2006 the first full board was appointed with 12 members reflecting wide industry involvement. The several major milestones were achieved in 2006/2007; becoming a member of the World GBC, the launch of the Green Star NZ — Office Design Tool, and welcoming our member companies.


The United States Green Building Council (USGBC) has developed The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) green building rating system, which is the nationally and internationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings. The Green Building Initiative is a non-profit network of building industry leaders working to mainstream building approaches that are environmentally progressive, but also practical and affordable for builders to implement. The GBI has developed a web-based rating tool called Green Globes, which is being upgraded in accordance with ANSI procedures. The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s EnergyStar program rates commercial buildings for energy efficiency and provides EnergyStar qualifications for new homes that meet its standards for energy efficient building design.

Washington became the first state in the United States to enact green building legislation, in 2005. Accordingly, all major public agency facilities with a floor area exceeding 5,000 square feet (465 m²), including state funded school buildings, are required to meet or exceed LEED standards in construction or renovation. The projected benefits from this law are 20% annual savings in energy and water costs, 38% reduction in waste water production and 22% reduction in construction waste.

Charlottesville, Virginia became one of the first small towns in the United States to enact green building legislation. This presents a significant shift in construction and architecture as LEED regulations have formerly been focused on commercial construction.


The Association for Environment Conscious Building (AECB) has promoted sustainable building in the UK since 1989. The UK Building Regulations set requirements for insulation levels and other aspects of sustainability in building construction. Copied from Architectural Evangelist.

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Design Options and Phases of Revit

Design Options and Phases of Revit

This post assumes you already have some exposure to the Parts tools or that you think the Split Face and Paint tools are the only tools available for defining scope of materials.

MORE CONTAINERS: Think of the Parts tool as yet another container… an instance of a family is duplicated in two containers… (Original vs. Parts).

USING SPLIT FACE AND PAINT: Parts are a nice alternative to using the split face and paint tools, a workflow that, in my experience, does not behave well with changes to the main model and other Design Option sets.  Split face sketches can get deleted (or moved) and painted surfaces can, often without warning, bleed onto adjacent faces.

PARTS REDUNDANCY: Create Parts from an original wall. You will end up with two walls in two separate containers (Original vs. Parts). Keep in mind that Parts, Design Options, and Phase containers are nice in that clash errors do not occur when used properly. Try using your Workset containers to study design options and you’ll run into many clashes/warnings.

Parts (or layers) of a wall, floor, roof, ceiling and other categories can be:

  • DIVIDED for breaking up layers of a walls, floors, etc. (ex. for defining variable finishes on an elevation/plan)
  • EXCLUDED for very specific scope of finish applications (ex. where wall finish meets a sloping grade)
  • DEMOLISHED for removal of existing finishes to make way for a new finishes

Design Options and Phases of Revit
THE BEST PARTS (no pun intended): Add the original wall to two or more design options and you will find that you can now divide, exclude, and demo parts… within Design Option containers!

If you are just replacing the finish layer for a remodel consider dividing the finish into two parts, reshaping them both to the shape of the original…  it’s ok if the finishes overlap 😉 and set their demo/create parameters as independent of the original. “Show Shape Handles” to change the thickness of your proposed finish.

Every view can be set to “Show Original,” “Show Parts,” or “Show Both.”

Show both is quite nice when the Parts category in Object Styles is set to line weight (1) for projection AND cut and your plan view is set to “coarse”. The Object Styles of Original elements will override the Object Styles of Parts “when both are present” so don’t feel like you have to pick one or the other.

This in mind, you can also combine solid and line patterns when you “Show Both”.  Try making your Original material solid fill grey and your Part material any line pattern.  This works in cut and projection 😉 Reference Design Options and Phases: Post #2 by David.

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Revit Devil’s Fork Fencing

Revit Devil’s Fork Fencing

TIA – This Is Africa: A quote I believe made infamous by the blockbuster Blood Diamond. This entry will focus on another unfortunate TIA necessity here in South Africa: Security. Most residential developments are now taking place in Security Complex’s, as it provides some kind of (false, in my opinion) confidence that the chance of crime occurring at your premises are less likely.

None the less, let’s turn a negative into a positive. Why not model the typical middle-class South African security barrier – Devil’s Fork Fencing, in Revit? Following the layout of a previous blog post: Parametric Revit Scaffolding, the first image will focus on the different component types a Devil’s Fork fence segment is typically made of.

Revit Devil's Fork Fencing

Assembled, complete with bars, braces, bolts and washers, the fence actually doesn’t look too bad.

look too bad

One thing to note however, is that I modeled the Razor Wire a bit thicker than what it would be in reality, for rendering purposes.

Revit Devil's Fork Fencing

The end result can look similar (or even better) than the image below:

Revit Devil's Fork Fencing

As a side note: I still cannot understand why Leonardo DiCaprio didn’t win an Oscar for his performance. Brilliant film!

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taj mahal

Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal

taj mahal

Described as “a tear on the face of eternity” by Rabindranath Tagore, it is not just a monument but truly a matchless piece of art.  It is unparalleled in magnificence and architecture when judged against other monuments built during the Mughal age.

The Taj Mahal in Agra is without a doubt the most celebrated paradigm of Mughal architecture. Described as “a tear on the face of eternity” by Rabindranath Tagore, it is not just a monument but truly a matchless piece of art. The Taj Mahal is famous architectural wonder. Built in 1648 by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in reminiscence of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal, it is unparalleled in magnificence and architecture when judged against other monuments built during the Mughal age. In fact it outshines the other wonders in the world as an exceptional piece of architecture. Above all, Taj Mahal has stood the test of time. Perhaps this is why Taj Mahal is India’s most famous architectural wonder.

It is inspired by the Persian architecture; Taj is a great amalgamation of Indian and Persian designs. Ustad Isa, an Indian architect of Persian lineage is thought to be the man who turned a dream called Taj into reality.

The first thing that comes to the mind is the dome that stands protected by the four minarets on each of the four sides of the main monument Each minaret is almost 40 meters tall and tapers as we go up. The positioning of these minarets with respect to the main structure, is one of the finest instance of the architectural genius. The minarets are built in such a way that each minaret to some extent is inclined towards the outer side, so as to keep away from any damages in case of earthquake.

The tomb is higher than a modern day 20-storey building was completed with a labor force of 20,000. Artisans from as far as Turkey and Iran got together to give Taj life. The white marble used, was mined at Makrana in Rajasthan. Precious stones were imported from Punjab, Baghdad, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and Afghanistan. The Taj Mahal contains 16 chambers, with eight chambers each on the two levels, that enclose the octagonal burial chamber surmounted by a inner dome. The mausoleum that stands on the platform is square in shape. Each of its side is 56.6 m long with a large central arch bordered by two pointed arches. All the corners have small domes while in the centre rises the main double dome which is crowned by a brass finial. The exterior adornment is calligraphy, skillfully carved panels and marvelous inlay work in the form of perfectly symmetrical floral patterns which cover the face of the white marble.

The beauty of the main landscape is heightened by a red sandstone channel placed between strings of cypress trees. The main entry is from the west, but there also exist two other entrances -from the east and from the west. The core gateway is a large three-storey sandstone entity with an octagonal central chamber. The walls are decorated with verses from the Quran.

The patterned gardens are planned with consideration to the classical Mughal ‘char bagh’ style. Two marble canals studded with fountains, lined with cypress trees stemming from the central, raised pool across the centre of the garden, separating it into four equal squares. The trait to be taken in account here is that the garden is planned in such a way that it maintains perfect symmetry.

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